Chemistry

ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

Acid:

A molecule or ion capable of donating a proton or H+ or able to form a covalent bond with an electron pair and a pH less than 7. Example: acetic acid (left).

Anion:

An ion with more electrons than protons and a net negative charge.

Atom:

The smallest unit that composes a chemical element, consisting of a positively charged nucleus and negatively charged electron(s). Example: representation of Helium.

Base:

A molecule or ion with an pair of elections available to form a covalent bond with a proton or an empty orbital and a pH greater than 7.

Bond:

An attraction between two or more atoms that results in the formation of a stable aggregate that can be considered an independent species. Covalent and ionic bonds are two common examples of common molecular bonds.

Cation:

An ion with more protons than electrons and a net positive charge.

Compound:

A substance composed of two or more atoms from two or more different elements that are associated via chemical bonds.

Covalent bond:

An interaction between atoms of same or different types that results in the sharing of pairs of electrons.

Electron:

An elementary particle with a negative charge that orbits the nucleus of the atom.

Gas:

A compressible fluid that will expand to fill the shape of its container, one of the states of matter.

Ion:

A molecule with a different number of electrons and protons and a net charge.

Ionic bond:

A bond between two atoms with a large difference in electronegativity, such as between an anion and a cation.

Liquid:

A state of matter where the molecules are held together by intermolecular bonds, a nearly constant volume is maintained (is nearly incompressible), and conforms to the shape of its container.

Molecule:

An overall electrically neutral substance consisting of more than one atom.

Neutron:

A subatomic particle located in the nucleus of the atom with zero net charge and a mass of approximately 1 amu.

Proton:

A subatomic particle located in the nucleus of the atom with positive elementary charge of +1 and a mass of approximately 1 amu.

Solid:

A state of matter where the molecules are packed closely together and have a definite shape and volume.

Solute:

The minor component of a solution which is dissolved by the solvent.

Solution:

A liquid or solid that contains two or more substances, one of which is designated the solvent (the major compoenent) and one of which is designated as the solute (the minor component). The solute is said to be dissolved by the solvent.

Solvent:

The major component of a solution which is said to dissolve the solute.

quimica

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